The elastic polishing abrasive is made of particles made of high elastic polymer synthetic materials and coated with a layer of diamond micro powder on the soft particles. The elastic abrasive is accelerated and sprayed to the surface of the workpiece by compressed air. After being impacted, the abrasive extends on the surface of the workpiece and has a polishing effect by sliding friction. This polishing method has good processing uniformity, and the removal amount of single particle is very small. It is very suitable for superfine polishing of various special-shaped workpieces.